December 10, 2011


Photographer: Glenn Woodell
Summary Author: Glenn Woodell

Efflorescence is the changing of a substance into a powder due to loss of water. This photo shows an example of extreme efflorescence over time from a concrete gun battery fortification at Fort Monroe in Hampton, Virginia. The leaching of salts and likely calcium carbonate, has built up so much that it actually formed stalagmites -- on the floor of the battery. Note the corresponding stalactites on the ceiling, one of which has broken off and is lying in the center of the battery. Photo taken on October 22, 2011.

Photo details: Camera Maker: NIKON CORPORATION; Camera Model: NIKON D70s; Lens: Nikkor 18-70mm, f/3.5-4.5; Focal Length: 18.0mm (35mm equivalent: 27mm); Aperture: f/9; Exposure Time: 1/320 sec; Exposure Bias: none; Metering Mode: Matrix; Exposure: aperture priority; White Balance: Auto; Light Source: Unknown; Flash Fired: No; Orientation: Normal; Color Space: sRGB; Software: Adobe Photoshop CS2 Windows.