May 23, 2014
Photographer: Peggy Riemer
Summary Author: Peggy Riemer
These photos show Kitch-iti-kipi, or Big Spring, in Manistique, Michigan, at Palms Book State Park. Rainfall and snowmelt on nearby hills moves through porous layers of Burnt Bluff sandstone before being discharged through the spring. This spring emits 10,000 gallons (38,000 liters) of water a minute, most of which roils through the sand floor 45 ft (14 m) beneath the surface of a crystal clear pond. Lake trout, brown trout and brook trout are found in the 45 F degree (7 C) spring-fed pond -- the temperature is nearly constant year around. Visitors pull themselves across the spring on a shaded platform, stopping as they wish to study the pond life and amazingly clear water. Photo taken in October 2013.
Photo details: Camera Maker: SONY; Camera Model: CYBERSHOT; Focal Length: 9.7mm; Aperture: f/2.0;
Exposure Time: 0.033 s (1/30); ISO equiv: 320; Software: Adobe Photoshop Lightroom 4.1 (Windows).